Hovercraft. Specifications and photos
In the vastness of our country outdoor enthusiasts do not miss the opportunity to secure a comfortable movement on the road, including water obstacles, at any time of the year. And if the snowmobile, watercraft and airboat is no surprise, then the use of military technology is attracting attention. The focus of this article - hovercraft, its technical characteristics, the possibility of use in peacetime, user reviews and an overview of prices for this type of transport.
Principle of operation
Hovercraft, thanks to the laws of aerodynamics, using air flow generated by the engine not only for driving, but also to reduce friction. Airbag is a layer of compressed air under the bottom of transport, which is retained due to the gravity force vessel. Excess air pressure causes it to grazing in the vessel's bottom area of contact with the ground or water. At the time of the bleed air excess friction between the bottom of the vehicle and the ground it is virtually absent - it gives the opportunity not only to move the ship using aerodvigatelya, but also to manage it freely.
In addition to static work to overcome friction, propulsion-injection system creates a dynamic and a job, making the ship move. For this purpose, an extensive cutter housing installed fan, which air flow gives a powerful acceleration of the boat. Located behind the ceiling fan allow you to control the air flow by adjusting the direction of traffic.
The technical capabilities of
Specifications hovercraft will not allow outdoor enthusiasts to pass by indifferently.
- Any surface to move. Waters with a wave height of 25 cm, ice or snow - a native element for the vessel. Allowed movement in the grass, sand, marsh, gravel or asphalt, but in such cases need to be prepared for the rapid deterioration of the flexible enclosure of the air cushion.
- Capacity. When it comes to the civil courts, the load capacity, including passengers, is about 1000-1500 kg. To a greater extent, this parameter depends on the engine capacity.
- The speed and fuel consumption. Standard assumed flow rate of 20 liters per hour and at a cruising speed of 60 km / h. Maximum values must not deviate from the arithmetic progression. That is the speed of the boat 120 km / h will increase fuel consumption by half, but no more.
Small, medium or large hovercraft have limitations that need to be known by all, without exception customers.
- When a wave height of 30 cm on the water surface boat movement will be difficult and may lead to flooding, since jerks and shock wave crests of reduced air pressure under the flexible enclosure by immersing the vessel in half the water.
- A dense and high vegetation limits the tight fit of the flexible enclosure to the earth's surface, which can also make it difficult to travel.
- Rigid obstacles over 35 cm (snags, stumps, stones) not only lower the pressure under the bottom of the vessel, but also can damage the flexible enclosure. Let the repair of boats on the site is not a problem if there was sewing and wire, but this extra time spent.
Where an interest
River and sea hovercraft in the XX century is considered the best vehicles to carry out walks by the water. Great speed, excellent maneuverability and high safety have attracted not only tourists but also local people who moved to suburban areas and back on the seas, lakes and rivers of our vast country. But attention attracted hunters and fishermen landing craft after the film "Return Move" in the sunset of the twentieth century. It was then born the era of small ships on an air cushion, because the film clearly presented all the technical capabilities of this type of transport, for which there is virtually no obstacles. Landing craft still are in service around the world. The peace and quiet of Russians protects the world's largest hovercraft called "bison". He will not be much trouble to cross the entire area of the Black Sea, having on board a couple of dozen tanks and armored personnel carriers. In addition to the carrying vessel has on board cruise missiles, making it a fighting unit in wartime.
Young technician - the beginning of all beginnings
Play amphibious boat in sizes suitable for the transportation of Russian Kulibin not made any particular problems. By testing and providing amphibious production technology in the scientific and technical publications of the country, the craftsmen have enabled military technology to serve peaceful purposes. If you open any technical magazine of the time, in the photo can be found not only motor hovercraft or with a hard bottom. To overcome terrestrial and aquatic spaces master devised various symbioses automobile transports and floating equipment, vaguely resembling BRDM.
However, they have remained only on paper, can not be said about the most popular in the world of transport for which there are no barriers, - air cushion vehicle (hovercraft). In the media, even now you can find a lot of detailed instructions, verified photos and videos, for the production of boats with his own hands from the ground up. However, professionals are recommended to refrain from such proposals, because the SVP is considered traumatic.
The best means of floating hovercraft boat found the series "Pegasus". First of all, it differs from competitors' ability to use at any time of the year. All new boats have a closed-end salon. It is made with the heating system and allows you to keep a comfortable environment even in thirty-degree frost. In the heat of summer cabin can be easily transformed, allowing for better circulation of fresh air. Depending on the modification watercraft capable of taking on board 5 to 8 people with equipment 350-500 kg. Taking into account the low fuel consumption and good performance cruising range and speed, it can be concluded that this is the best boat. The price of such a device is able to confuse the average person - 30 000 conventional units. However, if we sum up the value of combined equipment - motor boats, ATVs and snowmobiles, it becomes clear that the hovercraft has a very attractive price.
If interested in the corporate segment, the leader ship of the series is deemed "Neptune". With many modifications available, the device primarily is positioned as high permeability transportation for passengers.
Domestic alternative to
In addition to the "Pegasus" in the Russian market have proved themselves a hovercraft "Mars", "neoterikov", "Sagittarius", "Mirage", as well as offshore boats to transport up to 15 people series "Aerojet". All of them belong to the tourist class, because of which have limitations, primarily relating to the operation modes. For example, the ship "Mirage" can be used all year round, including extreme cold, but moving it through the waves and rough surfaces is limited due to some design features. But the kid "neoterikov" able to go where no man has gone before, not to mention the low fuel consumption (5 liters per hour) and a great boat speed. But with the carrying capacity and operating at low temperatures has big problems.
Miracle of Russian industry believe hovercraft, which bears the name "Beetle". After watching the SVP in the photo, no one does not turn the language to call his watercraft. It's more like a motorcycle on an air cushion. Twin small device sizes showing high permeability characteristics for different surfaces and at large angles.
SVP for Entertainment
Judging by the numerous reviews of the owners, a lot of popularity in Russia won the hovercraft "Tornado". It made it Ukrainian manufacturer OOO "Artel" at the Nikolayev shipyard. Initially, the boat is positioned as a flotation device for entertainment and cultural activities. Enough to see the photo boat to make sure it unfit for fishing or hunting. Small size, low loading capacity allow the SVP to violate all the laws of physics and aerodynamics both in speed and maneuverability, and the passage of all kinds of obstacles. What is he interested in the Russian buyer?
- Low Price. Total of ten thousand conventional units you can buy a universal means of transportation.
- The ability to upgrade. Boat hovercraft perfectly remodeled for hunting and fishing for two people.
- Parts of Russian production. Besides the engine RMZ-550 all the components can be found in the domestic market.
What is interesting abroad
Inexpensive, but also low-power hovercraft Hov Pod SPX, submitted by the UK, is the most popular watercraft in Europe. As he stands on the arms of two dozen countries around the world and is in demand in UN rescue mission. In the retail market the boat is positioned as a transport for the whole family - fishing, tourism, recreation, picnic - all this he is subject. The manufacturer claims that the simplicity, convenience and security - the main attributes of the vessel and boat control can entrust your child.
British high-tech devices and mechanisms are always different from its competitors flawlessly. Boat Hov Pod SPX air cushion is made of the unique composite material which is used for production of fences in "Formula 1". Steering Teleflex made of stainless steel. The base of the housing, motor protection, as well as all metal components in the bodywork are chromed. Thus, the manufacturer makes it clear to their customers that the boat trips on the ship are not prohibited.
The need for government agencies
In addition to leisure and entertainment hovercraft found its purpose in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and emergencies. For example, the watercraft "North" applied traffic police to find and arrest the culprits. Apparatus hovercraft not only shows excellent performance characteristics (150 km / h on the water), but is able to overcome biases prolonged to 30 degrees. This ship was seen armed with fishery inspection. Excellent performance characteristics are always able to attract attention.
For the repair of bridges and structures, servicing oil platforms, all kinds of diving, as well as if you need a repair of boats, yachts and cargo ships at anchorage, use watercraft Hovercraft series "Shelf". The enormous engine power and large size allow you to place on a ship up to two tons of cargo excluding 20 workers. U-turn 360 degrees without displacement it makes it easy to maneuver in any remote place.
Mainly all hovercraft are equipped with engines of Japanese automotive giants Honda and Subaru. This choice was not accidental. Unlike conventional motor boats, which is a number of revolutions per minute PTO shaft, floating craft with propulsion and pumping system longer important high power. Naturally, fuel economy is always a priority at any owner. And two-liter 130-horsepower engine and Honda D15B Subaru EJ20 found a use on boats with an air bag.
And if the original choice was substantiated their high performance and durability in operation, the currently popular is to upgrade capabilities. Craftsmen not only raised the power of the engine to 150 horsepower, but also greatly facilitated them, replace some components. The result is a very high-spirited hovercraft.
The legality of the use of
Hovercraft refers to small vessels and, therefore, subject to registration in the State Inspectorate with the appropriate name. To manage the flotation device, it is also necessary to put on record and get special rights. These procedures are very simple, they do not cause any problems. Efforts can only deliver obtain a medical certificate for passing on the right. It's not every day the doctors take boaters. Judging by the numerous reviews of the owners of the SVP, the passage Commission recommended to talk about a routine check on road management. Thus, the owner significantly accelerate the passage Commission and rid yourself of questions and jokes on the part of medical personnel.
As it turned out, craft market on an air cushion is not vacant. A large number of models of both domestic and foreign production are reasonable price and offer a wide range of possibilities. When making a choice among the models, it is necessary first to outline the scope of use - walking, entertainment, travel, hunting, fishing. After that, it is recommended to determine in what season the boat will be used. Price boat is heavily dependent on this choice.
You need to determine the number of passengers and load capacity. But the engine selection, fuel system and steering is not critical, as most devices have very similar characteristics, which do not significantly affect the price. If a potential buyer does not decide to give their preference for the English car, which has a 65-hp engine and capable to be dispersed over 70 km / h.