On what resorts rested the first Russian tourists
Tourism in Russia - a phenomenon quite young. Three hundred years ago for the pleasant experiences it was not accepted to go to other countries. All trips have practical meaning - the pilgrimage, the diplomatic mission, training, business meetings. Only in the XVIII century, people began to travel for pleasure and exploring the sights. Here are the most popular places for leisure, recreation and cultural enrichment, which was visited by representatives of the Russian nobility.
The first Russian who experienced the action of mineral waters, but also created a tradition of such improvement was Peter I. It was still undeveloped in the spa town of Carlsbad (now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic) in 1711. Staying at the resort with hot springs, according to court doctors had to get rid of the king of scurvy, pain in the bladder and gall bladder, as well as other diseases that have emerged as a result of doing the tedious hostilities. In the first stage of treatment Peter drank at least 5 liters of mineral water per day. The second stage - the hot tub. Forecasts of doctors were justified, Russian sovereign's health has improved significantly.
of Karl-IV in Carlsbad
The visit of Peter I in Carlsbad was not the only. A year later, he came back and stayed here for a long time. Peter's attention has been decisive for the development of the resort infrastructure of the town, then here began to gather representatives of the Russian nobility. Vacationers from Russia always aroused excitement the locals, this is due to the extravagance of Russian tourists in comparison with newcomers from other countries.
Postcard from Carlsbad.
Another demanded resort with thermal springs - Baden-Baden, where they treat diseases of the respiratory and musculoskeletal systems, women's diseases.
Tourists in Baden-Baden.
Here's to Russian for a long time regarded with suspicion, and the reason is that one of the first guests did not pay the bills. Meanwhile, it was the Adjutant General, distinguished courage in the Napoleonic wars. In the resort town of Black Forest schnapps he drank in excess of the monthly salary Baden laborer 50 times.
guesthouse in Carlsbad "King of England", where we stayed Turgenev
Russian public is not interested in the climatic health resort of France, preferring Prussian Spa clinic. And the reasons were political: firstly, that the Prussian resorts regularly visited by the Romanov dynasty, as well as other prominent personalities Russian beau monde - is a powerful advertising, and secondly, France did not inspire confidence because of revolutionary sentiment. Unrest there was uncomfortable, that does not contribute to improvement.
Paris - a city of luxury and pleasure
Rebellious nature of the French did not repel curious travelers. Paris starting from the XVIII century has been attractive for Russian nobility through art and architecture. The main item on the traveler of that era - visit to the theater Comedie Francaise. The notes of travel D. Fonvizin said: "Who here has seen a comedy that nowhere in the play does not go willingly, because the other does not want to look after Paris." About Paris, he writes with admiration Tolstoy, as a town, an interest which can not be extinguished. He visits the Louvre, art exhibitions, concerts and museums, noting that life here is lovely. Travelers also attracted attractions such as the royal palace of the Tuileries, Luxembourg Palace, in the transition from the Renaissance style in the baroque Catholic Church of Notre Dame.
The painting "Paris at night. Italian boulevard ", the artist Konstantin Korovin
Special cultural significance were trips to Italy
Italy and Rome were perceived Russian nobility as the cradle of European civilization. Unable to join the world of art and luxury, without visiting here - considered enlightened members of the nobility. Luxury travel to Italy pursued educational and aesthetic purposes. Travelers attracted Gothic church architecture, museums, customs and traditions of the local people. Among the sights of Rome were required to visit St. Paul's Cathedral and Sistine Chapel. Zinoviev, Chamberlain, Russian senator, wrote about the cathedral is extremely enthusiastic: "I have been to this hour it is already thirty times: I can not get enough of sight. Everything is arranged in proportion to that the effect of art out of probability. " Besides Russian Voyager impressed Roman Opera, where he happened to hear a voice "rather horoshago castrato".
The artist Canaletto, "View of the Grand Canal"
Another oddity for Russian travelers, which is not to overlook - the city on the water in Venice. Russian writer D. Fonvizin described it as a sad place, where instead of the streets of channels, instead of carriages gondola, where the buildings are old and black. Zinoviev also paid attention to the widespread use of masks in Venice. For six months, residents of any class or social status could go in disguise, in the office, the church, in the interior - everywhere.
Also, the Russian aristocracy attracted Naples ( "temple of fun") and Florence (city intellectual pleasure).
England - the center of business and industrial life of
London, Oxford, Dublin, Glasgow - the city, the most popular among the Russian Anglophile. In the UK land to get aesthetic pleasure and pleasant experience came Princess E. Dashkova, Count Ivan Chernyshev, Count G. Potemkin and other notable subjects of the Russian Empire. The most visited capital facilities - it's Hyde Park, Trafalgar Square, the British Museum, the National Gallery in London.
"Westminster and Westminster Bridge from the River" J. Goff
Russian playwright P. Bobrykin, not once visited the major cities of Europe in the XIX century, he writes about London "No city in Europe does not give the impression of huge material and cultural power as the British capital." He spoke with admiration about the size and strength of London life, which give a sense of immensity. Commercial and industrial way of the city makes it less solemn and attractive in comparison with Paris. But the energy, the desire for accumulation of values, active business districts inspire grandiosity.