7 towns, which might be the capital of Russia
The history does not tolerate the subjunctive? Even as suffering. Especially here - in Russia. We list the city, which would be the capital of our Motherland (and even tasted the informal capital status). If not for the circumstances ...
1. GREAT NOVGOROD
Of course, the first thing that comes to mind. The richest Russian city-state until the XVI century, a place of Rurik vocation. It is here, "said Rus, Chud, Slovenes, Krivichi and all:" Our land is great and rich, but there is no order. Come and reign over us. ' " Actually, this would be more than enough for the claim to the national capital status. However, Veliky Novgorod had other plans: a city bathed in their own self-sufficiency and independence, and shied away from any geopolitical games aimed at dominance in the territory of the former Kievan Rus.
As a result, in 1478 he joined John III and closed "feudal republic." From that moment began a dive down the city: from the subject of world politics Novgorod became a regional center and the city museum, where there is something to show to foreigners.
At the age of this city could easily compete with Novgorod the Great. Here, too, the rules of Rurik, the people of the town took an active part in the campaigns of Oleg at Constantinople, and that there was sown the seed of the future of Moscow Rus. For a long time, the growth was the main city in the North-Eastern Russia and the largest spiritual center. However, he did not stand the pressure of Moscow and Daniłowiczowski dynasty. First, growth in the early XIV century, was divided into two parts: Borisoglebovskay and Sretensky (which was under the protectorate of Moscow). all disloyal elite were exiled from Moscow part. The author of "The Life of St. Sergius of Radonezh", which, incidentally, was a native of Rostov boyar family, laments: "Alas Rostov and his princes, took power from them, reign, wealth and honor." And in John III in 1474 and finally bought a second, Borisoglebsk, half of the city. And the growth of freely began its descent to the status of provincial town.
Founded in the late X century on the site of a small village of the tribe Meria Vladimir after a century and a half was the status of the capital city of the North-Eastern Russia. Thanks to Prince Andrew Bogoliubsky, who in 1157 moved the capital here "all Suzdal land". But the Mongol-Tatar invasion undermined the long-term development of Vladimir. Despite the conditional status of the capital, the city quickly lost its primacy. The last prince, prince Vladimir itself was Alexander Nevsky.
At the dawn of Russian statehood Suzdal was a very influential city. Despite the adoption of Orthodoxy, he remained one of the centers of paganism until the XII century. It is here that broke out in 1024 the famous uprising of the Magi. A little more than 100 years; Magi cooled down a bit and wandered through the nearest thicket, and Yuri Dolgoruky made Suzdal center of North-East Land. But not for long. And in 1392 the Grand Duchy of Moscow, absorbing the city, finally buried the "capital" of Suzdal ambitions. But in the XVI century, the city became one of the spiritual centers of the country. But too long. First Suzdal accepted supernumerary status of county town, well, and in this era took on the burden of the "historical Disneyland."
On the status of the capital is the city (today, in fact, the village) the dream of many lovers of antiques. However, with a claim to the capital city of Ladoga parted before the Baptism of Russia. This city was founded by the Vikings. It is from here began the Norman colonization of the future in Russia. According to one version is here (not in Novgorod) sat Rurik to rule.
In those days, Ladoga was a port city, where the assembled merchant caravans, brisk trade in furs, jewelry, weapons and slaves. Actually, that's all claim to metropolitan status. Already in the X century Ladoga fell into complete dependence on Veliky Novgorod, and in 1703, "the ancient capital of Northern Russia" lost city status.
6. Alexander settlement
This small town has breathed life in the capital under Ivan the Terrible, who made it the center of his oprichnina. More than a dozen years, there was very lively: Sloboda make important political decisions, opened the embassy's most powerful states of that time, talks were held at the highest level. In the Alexander settlement worked best painters and architects; Russia's first conservatory, which by order of the king was established across the country were delivered to the best musicians and singers. There is also the country's first provincial printing house was opened and in 1576 saw the light of printed Andronik ignorant "Psalms Suburban." It was lost in the Sloboda, and traces of the legendary library of Grozny. But on the same day all over again. In 1581, the king went to Moscow and never returned. And the city had fallen asleep for a few centuries.
7. City of Kitezh
According to legend, the city was founded by Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich of Vladimir on the lake Svetloyar. City stood for 75 years before the invasion of Batu Khan. When Batu troops came up to him, then, in supplication residents Kitezh vanished. According to one version, disappeared under the water of the lake, on the other - has simply become invisible. In the Russian tradition, it was believed that the city will once again be visible only to the second coming of Christ. However, there are legends that the city now can see (and even live there!) Truly righteous. For them, it is already the capital of ...