Random discoveries that have changed the world for the better
If the big bang theory is correct, it can be assumed that the universe and all life was born in it - it's one big happy coincidence, exactly like the phenomenon of evolution and natural selection.
One could even argue that every person born in the world is the result of such a fluke. For you, we have chosen 8 unintended discoveries that changed the world for the better. Perhaps you should not blame themselves for all make mistakes, because they can suddenly find real value for humanity!
In 1928, a Scottish-born physician Alexander Fleming, investigating in his laboratory influenza virus, said that one of the bacterial cultures of samples has been infected by a fungus. Most scientists would simply thrown spoiled material, but Flemming acted differently. Upon closer inspection it is clear ring around the remarked fungus, indicating its toxic effect against staphylococci which are in a petri dish. Fleming isolated the mold Penicillium and called medicine, made on its basis, "penicillin". Subsequently, he was honored for his discovery of the Nobel Prize.
2. Stainless steel
Learning to work in a steel mill with 12 years, Harry Brearli their 30 years has become a true expert and a leading researcher in the field of industrial chemistry. In 1912, he developed a steel alloy composition - mixture of iron and other metals capable of withstanding superheated friction inside a rifle barrel. Experimenting, Brearli noticed that one of the alloys was still shiny and bright, while the remaining rust. After analyzing its composition, he found the exact formula of stainless steel. Brearli tried to convince his superiors to establish production of cutlery with a new alloy, but its proposal was rejected as potentially unprofitable. Ultimately, however, the inventor has been recognized as the creator of one of the most important metal of the 20th century.
3. Dead Sea Scrolls
In 1947, two Bedouin shepherds led the goats through the parched hills of Qumran near the Dead Sea. Chasing otbivshimsya animal from the herd, one of the shepherds almost fell into a deep cave on a hillside. Carefully descend into it, he came across several sealed pots inside which were battered papyrus rolls. A little later, the scrolls blackened by time, were sold to the Bedouins Jerusalem antique dealers for a few dollars apiece.
Studying bought sheets of papyrus scientists and historians of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem found that texts that contain the scrolls are the earliest editions of the Bible.
Back in Kurman, archaeologists and Bedouin researchers found another 10 caves containing hundreds of complete scrolls and fragments, written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek languages, including the earliest known copies of biblical texts. Precious papyri have been placed in the cave over 2000 years ago.
Many do not know that the famous pharmaceutical company Pfizer had not aimed to cure erectile dysfunction. The invention of Viagra was, in fact, a wonderful coincidence. Pfizer researchers tested a new batch of medicines for angina called UK-92480, when, during a specimen of the men began to report the occurrence of some ... side reactions occurring with their body. Further tests showed that the UK-92480 inhibits the production of an enzyme that breaks the mechanism of erection. Renamed in Viagra, miracle pills have become a drug it the fastest of all time and made a lot of men a lot happier.
5. The Velcro
Once, Swiss engineer George de Mestral was walking his dog in the foothills of the Alps. Returning home, the owner noticed that pet hair is covered with a pile of prickly grass "burr".
Inquisitive de Mestral examined carefully adhering to the dog hair particles under a microscope, trying to understand how nature could create such tenacity. Her reason was tiny hooks instantly secure the plant seeds to the surface of the wool. It is by profession an electrical engineer, not a fashion designer, de Mestral nevertheless spent the next eight years in research and development of apparel fasteners on the basis of their accidental opening. Its first prototype was made of cotton, and then - nylon. The invention made its debut in New York at a fashion show in 1959 and since then has enjoyed huge popularity throughout the world, including from NASA among developers.
The idea of ice cream on a stick seems so simple that a child might have to think of it. In fact, exactly what happened. Winter 1905 11-year-old Frank Epperson left on the porch in the evening a glass of fruit soda, which also remained stick to mix the drink. The next morning, the boy pulled out of the cup in the world's first popsicle.
Epperson started selling his accidental invention, only 18 years later. People once had to taste new meals and Frank decided to quit working for a real estate agent to sell their patent and have become world-renowned delicacy.
7. The X-rays
In 1895, Wilhelm Röntgen, a little-known German physicist, investigated cathode rays. In those days no one knew about electrons or radiation. X-rays passed through a vacuum tube current with high voltage, and was surprised to find that although it is closed tube sheets of black cardboard, some invisible rays were still able to work through them on the sensitive screen, located a few meters away.
Soon Roentgen discovered that the unusual rays can also be imprinted on the photographic plates. Using a sample hand of his wife (! What a gentleman), the scientist got a picture of her bones: the rays easily pass through the skin and muscle, but were blocked by bone and metal. For the first time people were able to see inside the human body without picking up a scalpel.
Roentgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
No one knows exactly who invented the first beer. People first began to explore the grain processing about 10 000 years ago in Mesopotamia. Initially, breads were fresh, flat and rigid. But sometimes we get wet grain, becoming food for the natural yeast, producing alcohol as a byproduct. At some point, the ancient bakers have noticed that it is fermented in this manner grains are the basis lush loaves of bread. Several enterprising (and slightly insane) people are also likely to decide to swallow a strange foam formed during the fermentation process ... and discover the beer! Some anthropologists and archaeologists have even suggested that it was beer, not bread, was the original cause of agriculture. Bread, some say, was merely a convenient by-products in an effort to make the tastiest beer