What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

Ordinary Japanese does not make sense to explain what judo, as in Japan, this kind of martial arts goes beyond the conventional sport is a whole cultural phenomenon and a complete philosophy of life. However, outside of Japan, Judo has enormous popularity and is among the four most popular types of struggle.

The soft path

In defining what judo, you need to consider its special position in the world of sports. This is - a Japanese martial art founded in the late nineteenth century, Jigoro Kano, who formulated the basic principles, the rules of practice and competition. In Japan, this kind of martial arts include a modern martial arts.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

Of course judo title translates from Japanese as "the gentle way". Unlike boxing, taekwondo, karate there are no strikes, are the basis for throwing, wrestling, undercuts, painful holds, retention.

However, judo is also different from the classical and freestyle wrestling - during receptions emphasis is not on physical strength athlete, but his agility, coordination. Range of technical actions allowed in judo is more latitude. The very essence of this martial art is to draw brute enemy against himself and win with minimal costs.


Until the early twentieth century, no one outside of Japan do not know what judo. The founder of this martial art became legendary Jigoro Kano, who studied traditional jujutsu (jiu-jitsu). At the end of the nineteenth century the old martial arts in Japan experienced a crisis, there was a process of active borrowing from Western culture, old traditions were consigned to oblivion.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

Jigoro Kano developed on the basis of a new martial art of jujutsu, and filled it with new meaning and content. The main basis of judo, he announced, "path", placing first self-identity and highlighting its humanistic essence, as traditional jujutsu was associated with a rough occupation, designed exclusively for killing a man.

He did not include in the new martial art most traumatic techniques of jiu-jitsu, leaving them solely to the study in the form of kata.


Birthday countdown start judo since 1882 on a day when the first school opened the Kodokan. It was quite small and there were only 12 tatami, but thanks to the popularity of energy Jigoro Kano Judo began to spread across the country at a rate of fire of the steppe. By 1887 it was developed and documented technical base, which was given a detailed explanation of what judo.

Old martial art, filled with new content, began to study at military academies in Japan as the most effective means of protection of unarmed combat. By 1900, Jigoro Kano developed clear rules of refereeing at competitions.

In parallel, the natives of Europe, to get acquainted with this new word in the world of martial arts, brought to their countries of judo and popularized it at home. So brainchild of Jigoro Kano began to spread around the world. Venerable Sensei until his death in 1938, engaged in development of judo, is not finding the inclusion of the Japanese martial art in the Olympic Games in 1964.


To understand what this sport - judo, you must familiarize yourself with the main content. Popular Japanese martial art consists of three main sections. Kata - a set of exercises performed by a pair of fighters. It is in the kata section examines the most dangerous techniques are not approved for use in sports competitions of judo.

Randori - fight according to certain rules specified in advance. The aim of Randori is the study and consolidation of specific techniques. Shiai - the actual competitions themselves.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

Technical arsenal of techniques, which show that a judo in action is very varied and is divided into three large groups. Nage waza - throwing techniques. Katame waza - immobilization technique. Atemi waza - striking technique.

In turn, immobilizes the techniques are divided into choking, pain and retention. Atemi waza, and also the most dangerous health practices of the first two sections of study exclusively in the form of kata and do not allow for use in competitions.

In total, the first section includes 67 receptions, the second - 29. In turn, the number of combinations of all these methods - countless and depends solely on imagination and creative abilities of an athlete and a coach that have long discovered for themselves what kind of sport - judo.

Throws and chokes

One of the fundamental differences Judo from the classic forms of struggle - a kind of defensive stand. After seeing a couple of minutes of any match, we can already get an idea of ​​what kind of sport of judo.

It is forbidden to meet an opponent, using a low defensive stance, a fighter must defend themselves with a straight back. This opens a wide scope for a large variety of shots. One way to achieve victory is tipping an opponent on his back, which is carried out and throws. Their judo carried over the back, hip, shoulder. It is possible to make steps, sweeps, grabs. How upset the opponent out of the rack, and the fall.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

Another way to finish the fight early surrender of the enemy is. For this there is a whole arsenal of painful and suffocating receptions. The most common are the various levers and nodes among the painful methods. To leverage refers techniques arching limb pain in the joint above the limit, and the nodes - twisting arms in the joint.

For the sake of reducing the possibility of injury in the sport of judo allowed only painful receptions elbow.

As a self-defense device

Judo became the basis for many popular types of martial arts, including Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Sambo, created in the USSR in the thirties of the last century. This is due to the high efficiency combat self-defense.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

Through thoughtful training with sparring partner for developing speed, strength, endurance, and coordination of movements.

The very essence of judo is constant falls, so one of the fundamental elements of this sport is to train safe falls, because of which sharply reduced the possibility of injury.

Judo rules encourage a rapid transition to the holding of the suffocating and painful methods after the shots, which gives the necessary self-defense skills.

Judoka perfectly hone your throwing technique, able to perfectly control the position of an opponent during the reception, which allows you to choose in relation to it the necessary degree of exposure in self-defense.


Sport of judo is an Olympic, which leads to its widespread throughout the world. Championship of the world, Europe and the prestigious commercial tournaments. It is true that the rules of sports judo undergone a significant transformation since the Jigoro Kano.

Contractions fighters carried out on the mat size of 14x14 meters. In turn, within the limits of the zone delineated smaller square size of 8x8 or 10x10 meters. Any technical action allowed to conduct solely inside the combat zone.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

During the competition, held under the auspices of the International Federation, the athletes wearing the judogi white and blue colors. Fight continues for five minutes. In case of a tie assigned unlimited additional time before the first successful technical action or prevention.

Athletes can hold rolls of the stands, suffocating and painful holds in the case when the fight goes to the ground. In the sport of judo prohibited from holding receptions in the rack. Also limited the scope of painful methods. It can be carried out only with the manipulation of the limbs at the elbow, unlike Sambo, where permitted to work with the knees of the enemy.

Judo in the Olympic movement

Competitions on a judo among men were first included in the Olympic Games in 1964 in Tokyo. It played out a total of 4 sets of medals, including competition in the Open category. Then, the Japanese had no equal, and won 3 gold. However, the fly in the ointment for them was the victory of the great Dutch champion Anton Gessinka in the most prestigious weight category - absolute.

Judo - what kind of sport for children

Venerable Japanese martial art has a deservedly high reputation worldwide. For children it is one of the best kinds of sports. Training in Judo can kill several birds with one stone. This is primarily an excellent lesson on the strength development, endurance, dexterity. In addition, judo is one of the most effective martial arts for self-defense, that will help the child feel secure in their daily lives.

What is Judo? The history and origin of Judo

In contrast to the traditional forms of martial arts, judo no hazardous bumps, which contributes to its penetration into the list of the safest contact sports. Even playing football and hockey, according to statistics, are more traumatic.

What is judo for children? This is one of the most recommended types of martial arts.