How to build underground
• How to build the subway
At the end of December in Kiev to open the jubilee 50th subway station - "Exhibition Center". Section of track and station itself are built in record time - less than one year.
In this feature, I will show how the station looks for the 4 weeks before the opening, tell you how to build a subway and why the construction of the subway at Towers postponed to 80-ies of the last century, we will walk through the tunnel and see the legendary ZIL-130 on the rail wheels.
This is the lobby of the new station:
How does the lining of the tunnel:
The tunnel runs rotary machine (the length of 120 meters, the main part of it - is the front head (9 meters)), which runs ahead and performs decompression soil around the tunnel. All the waste is transported to the soil surface. In parallel, two tunnels being built in one of them works more modern mechanized complex "Herrenknecht", and in the second TBM "Wirth", an older, but more reliable and with better terrain.
Mechanized complex-shield must be located at a depth equal to or greater than the size of the shield. E. If the shield diameter of 6 meters, then above it should be at least 6 meters. However, during the construction of this portion Kurynivska Krasnoarmejsky-line during the passage under the Amur area depth was only 1, 5 m!
Head "Herrenknecht" complex:
And on the back side - a set-shield and slaughter. Clearly visible dissecting partitions that prevent soil dumped. To the left of the circle you can see jacks, which run into the last set ring and push the board forward as excavation.
And here is the tail of the hand of the complex:
Tonel consists of rings, each of which consists of seven elements. O-ring - this is the best design for the construction of the tunnel, significantly superior to the square shape. "Square" tunnels are being built where the tunnel is built on top of open way, in Kiev - is the metro at the Kharkov array. The inner diameter of the tunnel - 5.4 m, it's better than 5.1 m, it is possible without problems to place cable blocks.
elements of the Rings:
Metro building around the clock on this line 2,500 people work, including plant workers, and at the site and underground station just 1,200 people.
Legendary Zil-130 I've seen the pictures before and the first time I saw myself here, truck on railroad wheels looks bright! :) 3 of these machines, they are used to transport concrete, and two of the mixer running.
Concrete itself is downloaded from the surface through a special hole:
Probably one of the most trivial matters amateur metrostroevtsy - "Do you have met during the laying of the tunnel is something unusual and interesting?". "Nothing unusual there for us, all that we meet on the way - it's challenges and obstacles", despite the existing maps and diagrams of underground utilities, unplanned obstacles continue to occur. Event of a collision with concrete blocks, occurred damage to the machine. But the underground building and under the apartment buildings, although it is rather an exception to the rules in the construction of this site.
Jubilee 50th station "Exhibition Center" was built in just one year, that is an incredible indicator, given the complexity of the site. To be on time was introduced two innovations - the camera trains Congress (section of track where the train takes place in a tunnel) was designed and built before, and not after the station (!). We began to build the station in February 2011. Congress Camera:
Also, this station is very high and an upgraded vault, allowing boards to pass the already existing transit station. Since it was built before the tunnel through it. To be on time tunnel, the station and the lobby were built in parallel. At the time of opening will work only one side of the station. In the rush hour traffic interval will be 50 seconds, which is provided by the 22 pairs of trains on the line.
In this tunnel there are three types of railroad tracks. Portion of the webbing (165 m) using sleepers (800 sleeper units) is arranged on the curve at the Amur area, the curve radius of 300 m at the station uses special "concrete lining" under the rails.:
pouring concrete bottom of the tunnel, where it is then there is laying the railway line:
superiors inspection is carried out at 7 am (!):
Vladimir Petrenko - the chairman of the joint stock company "Kievmetrostroy" government:
Ground or underground subway?
Metro should be underground, it does not interfere with existing communications and transportation, does not create noise for nearby houses. The station itself is necessary to lay on a comfortable depth for passengers, this depth of 12 meters. Probably many noticed that before and after the subway station goes down. Why is this done? To save energy, after the station composition goes down, acceleration occurs, as approaching the station - is lifted up, and there is a natural inhibition train enters the station at a speed of 10 km / h. Maximum permissible deviation of 0, 040 ( "forty-thousandths") - is a 4 cm high by 1 meter path. Construction Kurenivsko-Chervonoarmiiska line in the direction of Towers was considered in 1983 Shcherbytsky but was frozen due to the very high complexity of the construction area Lybidska - Bus station, to go deep foundation was not possible, because at that time did not have enough power to go hard spondilovye clay a shallow place was impossible due to the need to carry out deep freezing of soil around the tunnel. Freezing of soil - is one way to prevent flooding of the tunnel and diversion of water, because in this place flows the river Lybid. And only now, new technologies have allowed to pass the river Lybid, the new panels feature a "dirt prigruzami" - a technology that do pozvolet pressing face so that there was no rain the surface, ie, the soil around the tunnel is sealed...
As of December 2011 a panel has already passed on for 400 meters and is already half way to the station "Hippodrome", the second shield crosses the street. Glushkov.