How do solar panels for space
• How do solar batteries for space
This photoelectric converters - semiconductor devices that convert solar energy into direct current. Simply put, these are the main elements of the device, which we call "solar panels".
With the help of such batteries into orbit artificial satellites operate. Make such batteries in Krasnodar - on "Saturn" factory.
Enterprise in Krasnodar part of the Federal Space Agency of the structure, but has a "Saturn" company "Ochakovo", which literally saved this production in 90 years.
The owners of "Ochakovo" bought a controlling stake, which had almost gone to Americans. "Ochakovo" has invested a lot of money here, bought modern equipment, was able to retain experts and now, "Saturn" - one of the two leaders on the Russian market and the production of solar batteries for the needs of the space industry - both civilian and military. All profits earned by the "Saturn", is here, in Krasnodar, and is on the development of the production base.
So, it all starts here - in the area of so-called.. vapor-phase epitaxy. This room is a gas reactor, in which on a substrate made of germanium for three hours grown crystal layer, which will serve as the basis for future photocell. The cost of such a facility - about three million euros.
After that, the substrate is still a long way to go: on both sides of the photocell will cause the electrical contacts (and contacts will be "picture-size fits all", the dimensions of which are carefully calculated on the working side to maximize the passage of sunlight), on a substrate will be enlightening coating, etc. -.. just over two dozen technological operations at various units before photocell becomes a basis of the solar battery.
For example, the installation of photolithography. Here on the solar cells are formed "pictures" of electrical contacts. The machine performs all operations automatically, for a given program. Here and in the appropriate light, which does not harm the photosensitive layer solar cell - as early as in the era of analog photography, we used the "red" lights.
In the vacuum deposition installation using an electron beam are applied to the electrical contacts and insulators as well as antireflection coatings are deposited (it increases the current produced by the photocell 30%).
Well, the photocell is ready and you can start the solar cell assembly. By the solar cell surface soldered bus, then to connect them to each other, and they glued safety glass, without which it is in space, in conditions of radiation, solar cell can not withstand the load. And although the glass thickness of only 0, 12 mm, battery with such solar cells will be a long run in the orbit (in high orbits for more than fifteen years).
The electrical connection is made between the photocells silver contacts (called Shinko) thickness of 0 02 mm.
generated by a solar battery to get the right supply voltage, solar cells are connected in series. Here is the section of the series-connected solar cells (photovoltaic cells - so right).
Finally, a solar battery is assembled. This shows only a portion of the battery - in panel layout format. Such panels on the satellite can be up to eight, depending on the kind of power needed. In today's communications satellites, it reaches 10 kW. These panels will be mounted on a satellite in space, they unfold like wings, and with their help we will be watching satellite TV using satellite internet, navigation systems (satellites "Glonass" Krasnodar use solar panels).
When the spacecraft is illuminated by the Sun, produced by solar cell electric power feeding device system, and the excess energy is stored in the battery.
When the spacecraft is in shadow by the Earth, the apparatus uses the electric power stored in the battery. Nickel-hydrogen battery having a high energy (60 Wh / kg) and practically inexhaustible resource, commonly used on spacecraft. The production of such batteries - another part of the work "Saturn" plant.
In this image, the assembly of nickel-hydrogen battery produces Chevalier Medal of the Order "For Services to the Fatherland" II degree Anatoly Panin.
Plot assembly nickel-hydrogen batteries. battery filling is prepared for placement in the body. Filling - a positive and negative electrodes separated by the separator paper - and in them there is a transformation and accumulation of energy.
Apparatus for electron beam welding in vacuum, by which the battery casing is made of thin metal.
The site shop, where body parts and batteries are tested for effects of high blood pressure.
Due to the fact that the accumulation of energy in the battery is accompanied by the formation of hydrogen and the pressure inside the battery increases, the leak test - an integral part of the process of manufacturing the batteries.
The case of nickel-hydrogen battery - a very important part of the entire device, working in space. The housing is designed for the pressure of 60 kg · s / cm2, when tested rupture occurred at a pressure of 148 kg · s / cm2.
Proven on battery strength is charged with electrolyte and hydrogen, after which they are ready to go.
nickel-hydrogen battery housing is made of special alloy metals and must be mechanically strong, lightweight and have a high thermal conductivity. Batteries are installed in the cell and with each other are not in contact.
Accumulators and batteries collected are subjected to an electrical test on its own production. In space, nothing will be impossible to fix and replace, so here thoroughly test each product.
The entire space technology is being tested on the mechanical impact by means of vibration stands that simulate the load in the derivation of the spacecraft into orbit.
In general, the plant "Saturn" made a most favorable impression. Production is well organized, clean and bright workshops, qualified people work, communicate with such experts - it is a pleasure and a very interesting person, at least to some extent, the interests of our cosmos.