10 amazing facts about black holes
Interesting facts about one of the most mysterious objects of modern science.
1. The first suggestion made by John Mitchell of the existence of black holes
The majority believes that the discovery of the existence of black holes - the merit of Albert Einstein.
However, Einstein completed his theory to the 1916-th year, and John Mitchell thought of the idea in far 1783 m. She has not found application because this English priest did not know what to do with it.
Mitchell began to develop the theory of black holes, when Newton took the idea that light consists of small material particles, called photons. He was thinking about the movement of light particles and concluded that it depends on the gravitational field of the star, which they leave. He tried to understand what happens to these particles, if the gravitational field is too large to allow light to leave.
Mitchell is also the founder of modern seismology. He suggested that earthquakes are distributed in the ground like waves.
2. They really draw the space around them
Try to space in the form of a rubber sheet. Imagine that the planet - it's balls to put pressure on the sheet. It is deformed and no longer has a direct line. This creates a gravitational field, and explains why the planets move around the stars.
If the mass of the object will increase, the deformation space can be even more. These additional perturbations increase the force of gravity and speed up the orbit, causing the satellites to move around objects faster and faster. For example, Mercury moves around the sun at a speed of 48 km / s, while the orbital velocity of stars near the black hole at the center of our galaxy reaches 4800 km / s.
If the force of gravity is strong enough, then the satellite is facing a large-sized object.
3. Not all black holes are the same
We usually think that all black holes are in fact one and the same. However, astronomers have recently found out that they can be divided into several varieties.
There are rotating black holes, black holes with electric charge and black holes, including the features of the first two. Conventional black holes occur by absorption of matter, and a rotating black hole formed by merging two of these holes.
These black holes consume much more energy because of the increased space of indignation. Charged rotating black hole acts as a particle accelerator.
Black hole called GRS 1915 + 105, located at a distance of about 35,000 light years from Earth. It revolves at a speed of 950 revolutions per second.
4. Their density is extremely high
Black holes need to be overly massive with incredible small size, large enough to create an attractive force to deter light. For example, if you make a black hole mass equal to the mass of the Earth, it will turn with the ball diameter of only 9 mm.
Black hole whose mass is 4 million times the mass of the sun, can fit into the space between Mercury and the sun. The black hole at the center of galaxies can have a mass greater than the mass of the sun from 10 to 30 million times.
Such a large mass in such a small space means that black holes have an extremely large density and the forces acting within them, is also very strong.
5. They are quite noisy
Everything that surrounds the black hole, is drawn into the abyss, and at the same time accelerating. Event horizon (the boundary of space-time from which the information can not reach the observer because of the finite speed of light; approx mixstuff.) Accelerates the particles to nearly the speed of light.
While crossing the event horizon center gurgle matter arises. This sound is a transformation of the energy of motion into sound waves.
In 2003, astronomers using the Chandra observations recorded sound waves emanating from a supermassive black hole at a distance of 250 million light years.
6. Nothing can escape their attraction
When something (this may be the planet and the star, and galaxy, and the particle of light) passes close enough to the black hole, the object will inevitably be captured by its gravity field. If something else acting on an object, say, a rocket, stronger attractive forces of the black hole, it will be able to avoid absorption.
Until then, of course, until it reaches the event horizon. Point, after which leave a black hole is impossible. To leave the event horizon, it is necessary to develop a speed greater than the speed of light, and this is impossible.
This is the dark side of a black hole - if light can not escape it, we will never be able to look inside.
Scientists believe that even a small black hole will tear you to pieces long before you get through the event horizon. The force of attraction is greater, the closer you are to the planet, star or a black hole. If you are flying to a black hole feet first, then the force of gravity in your feet will be much greater than in the head. This will tear you to pieces.
7. They slow down time
The light goes around the event horizon, but, ultimately, he is trapped into oblivion when penetrates.
You can describe what happens to the clock, if they fall into the black hole and survive there. As we approach the event horizon, they will slow down and eventually stop completely.
This freezing of time is due to gravitational time dilation, which is explained by Einstein's theory of relativity. The force of attraction to the black hole is so large that it can slow down time. In terms of hours, everything is going fine. Hours will be lost from sight, while the light from them will be even more stretched. Light will become more red, the wavelength will increase and as a result it will go beyond the visible spectrum.
8. They are perfect energy producers
Black holes suck in all of the surrounding ground. Inside the black hole is still compressed so much that the space between the individual elements of compressed atoms, and as a result formed subatomic particles capable fly outwardly. These particles are pulled out from the black holes through the magnetic field lines crossing the event horizon.
Isolation of the particles creates a pretty effective way of energy. Conversion to weight the energy in this way up to 50 times much more efficiently than the fusion.
9. They limit the number of stars
One day, a famous astrophysicist Carl Sagan, said: in the universe more stars than grains of sand on the beaches around the world. But it seems that in the universe of all 10 22 stars. This number is determined by the number of black holes. The streams of particles produced by black holes, expand to bubbles, which are distributed through the area of star formation. Star formation area - of gas clouds is portions which can cool and form stars. These particle flows are heated gas clouds and prevent occurrence of stars.
This means that there is a balance between the activity of stars and black holes. A very large number of stars in the galaxy are located will make it too hot and explosive for the development of life, but too small number of stars does not contribute to the emergence of life.
10. We are made of the same material
Some researchers believe that black holes will help us in creating new elements, because they break up the matter on subatomic particles.
These particles are involved in the formation of stars, which in turn leads to the creation of elements heavier than helium, such as iron and carbon, necessary for the formation of solid planets and life. These elements are a part of everything that has mass, which means you and me.