The most difficult questions
Will we once understand the nature of the universe that makes us human, and what we dream? There are a lot of questions, the answers to which we still do not know, but we hope to find soon. Here are some of the most challenging and exciting scientific questions that people think the best minds of mankind.
What is the universe?
We know about 5 percent of the composition of the universe. These make up 5 percent of the atoms of the periodic table, which form everything we see around us. The remaining 95 percent remain a mystery. Over the past 80 years, it became clear that the rest consists of two dark entities: dark matter (around 25 percent) and dark energy (70 percent). Dark matter is around galaxies and clusters, and acts as an invisible glue binding them. We know what it is, because it has mass, therefore, the force of gravity. Dark energy - it is something more mysterious, kind of ether-like medium that fills the space, expanding it and making the galaxies to accelerate from each other. We do not know what is dark energy or dark matter, astronomers and only approach to understanding these invisible "alien".
How life began on Earth?
About 4 billion years ago, something started in the "primordial soup". It consisted of simple chemicals, which are met and by which first appeared molecules capable reproduced by cell division. We are all connected with these early biological molecules. But the basic chemical substances present in the world, joined spontaneously to create life.
As we had DNA? What were the first cells? Scientists still do not know how it happened. Some argue that life originated in hot waters near volcanoes, the other - that the beginning of life were the meteorites fallen into the sea.
Are we alone in the universe?
The astronomers carefully looking at the universe worlds where water could give rise to life, starting from the satellite of Europe and the planet Mars in our solar system before the planets, which are located at a distance of light-years.
In 1977, radio telescopes have caught a signal similar to a possible alien message.
Now astronomers can further explore the atmosphere of distant worlds in the presence of oxygen and water. In recent years, about 60 billion of potentially habitable planets have been found only in the Milky Way.
What makes us human?
The human genome is 99 percent identical to the chimpanzee genome. Our brain is really more than most animals, but not the biggest. In addition, we have three times more neurons than a gorilla.
Many things that we thought, distinguish us from the animals, including the language, the use of tools, the ability to recognize themselves in the mirror, observed in other animals.
Perhaps the culture and its impact on our genes play a decisive role. Scientists believe that the ability to prepare and possession of fire helped man to develop a large brain. Maybe the ability to cooperate and trade skills have made us the people of the planet, and not monkeys?
What is consciousness?
While it is known that this is due to the work of several areas of the brain associated with each other, rather than one part of the brain. If we understand, our nervous system is involved and how it works exactly which parts of the brain, we understand how consciousness arises, and maybe it will help us in the creation of artificial intelligence.
However, even more serious philosophical question is why we should be aware of.
According to one of the assumptions, combining and processing a lot of information, and in response to sensory signals, we can distinguish between what is really real and what is not, and to think through future scenarios, which help us to adapt and survive.
Why do we dream?
We spend a third of your life in a dream. Given the amount of time it takes us to sleep, it might seem that we all know about him. However, scientists still can not find an explanation as to why we sleep and dream.
The followers of Sigmund Freud believed that dreams are unfulfilled desires, often sexual. Others argue that dreams are nothing more than random impulses sleeping brain.
Animal studies and advances in brain imaging have shown that sleep plays a role in memory, learning and emotions.
Why is there matter?
According to the laws of physics matter should not exist by itself. Each particle of matter, every electron, proton, neutron must have "twin" - the antimatter. Should exist in a large number of positrons or anti-electrons, antiprotons and antineu-, but it is not. If matter and antimatter meet both disappear due to the fact that a huge amount of energy produced. According to the theory, the Big Bang created equal amounts of both, but something happened that left in the universe is only matter.
Of course, the nature had its own reasons for the creation of matter, otherwise we would not exist.
The researchers analyzed data from experiments of the LHC to understand why in our universe there is an asymmetry of matter and antimatter.
Are there other universes?
Is our universe is only one? Modern theories and cosmology are increasingly turning to the idea of the existence of other universes, possibly with other properties that are different from ours.
If there is an infinite number of them in the multiverse, any combination of parameters, you can play somewhere else, and you will be able to exist in a different universe. But is it? And how do we know that this is so? If we can not confirm this hypothesis, whether it is a part of science?
Can we live forever?
We live in an exciting time, as we start to think about aging, but a fact of life, but the disease that can be treated and possibly prevented, at least for a long time.
Our knowledge of what causes aging, and why some animals live longer than others, is constantly expanding. Data on DNA damage, metabolism, reproductive health helps us a more complete picture and possibly create medicines. But the more important question is not how long we will live, and how long we will live well. Since many diseases, including diabetes and cancer, are more likely to diseases of aging, aging treatment may be the key.
Is time travel possible?
Travel in space - something quite feasible, but whether it is possible to travel through time?
When it comes to travel to the past, the laws of physics prevent it, and it will remain forever in our memory.
However, the road to the future is more open for us. According to Einstein's special theory of relativity, for astronauts on the International Space Station, time flows more slowly. When the rotation speed of the ISS, this effect is almost not noticeable, but if you increase the speed up to the speed of light, people will be able to fly for thousands of years to come.
However, we can not go back and tell others about what we have seen.