As the purified wastewater in Moscow
• How to treat waste water in Moscow
Today we will speak on the subject close to each of us.
Most people, by clicking on the button to the toilet, do not think that happens so that they washed off. Flowed and flowed, the business somehow. In such a big city as Moscow on the day of the sewer system is not leaking as many as four million cubic meters of wastewater. This is about as much water flows into the Moskva River opposite the Kremlin the day. All this huge volume of waste water to be cleaned and the task is very difficult.
In Moscow, there are two major treatment plants. It Kuryanovskoy treatment plants and water treatment facilities Lyubertsy, located in the department Mosvodokanal (also in the office of the organization all the water and all the water drain). They are among the largest in Europe and take about 2 million cubic meters of wastewater per day. Kuryanovskaya station serves the south-western half of the city, Lyubertsy - northeast. There are a number of sewage treatment plants, but they are relatively small.
The question will be about Kuryanovskoy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which are located within the city, not on the margins and between the residential areas of Marino, Nagatino, Saburovo and others.
Kuryanovskoy sewage treatment plant - the oldest. They started to build in 1939, but because of the war, work was suspended as a result of constructions were launched only in 1950. At that time buildings were located far outside of town among the fields and industries.
So treatment plants looked after launch:
The red dashed line shows how flowed sewage. It is also easy to see the narrow winding channel through which in the Moscow River discharged purified water. Separately pleases the beautiful architecture of those times
In time, the city grew and there was two things. Firstly, CBS was no longer outside the city, and within it, and surrounded by residential areas. Secondly, the increased volume of wastewater and the station had to expand. In the 70 years in the neighborhood of the old treatment Kuryanovskoy New sewage treatment plant consisting of two units were built.
In the construction of new units has also built a new offtake. old outlines can still see satellite imagery. Currently block NACA-1 (East) and extends stopped reconstruction unit NACA-2 (Western) works, but will be reconstructed after the first. Next will be discussed mainly about the NACA-2 block. It is fully mirrors the block NACA-1.
Water purification is carried out in several stages. In order to better understand how and what is happening on the ground, I drew a diagram schematically showing the path of the water during cleaning.
It all starts with the receiving chamber. A total of three stations receiving chamber. They waste water from urban sewage collectors come to the treatment plant. The object of the chamber serves to extinguish the excess flow velocity and to distribute the flow into a plurality of small channels in a laminar flow. It looks like from the space receiving chamber first and second blocks NACA:
Waste water replenished on the left and right bottom, turns 90 degrees and divided into small channels.
Let's go down to the ground
In this photo waste water replenished left as part of effluent flows through a curved pipe and falls vertically downward (obviously, in order to extinguish the horizontal flow velocity). This is one of the most foul-smelling places on CBS, for obvious reasons. The truth is actually quite straight Nothing wrong in my opinion no, if not deliberately sniff pairs. Then the flow is divided into two parts, each of which is then divided by 8 parts. In the photo is the real river of sewage. This is 1/6 of what "makes" Moscow and 1/3 of what goes on CBS.
The second channel is closed from mid-2012, t. To. The unit NACA-1 is under construction, about which I tell you a little more detail below. During this time, on the fertile soil has had time to grow a whole field. Note the white building in the background - more about it will be discussed.
Each of the smaller channels can overlap their own hinged door if necessary. All valves in the station (and then them in the photo is not enough) and have automated electric drive.
But the white building, it is called the building grids. To him, underground, through small channels flow fecal water.
In a building set so-called lattice. This special mechanisms designed to remove solid contaminants present in wastewater. Here, perhaps, the fun begins.
lattice itself is a kind of conveyor mounted in the water flow. Conveyor belt, consisting of metal plates with holes, rotates slowly, so that he had fallen debris does not accumulate, and constantly rises (otherwise the lattice would be quickly clogged). At the top of the trash automatic scraper scraped off and falls to the moving rubber belt, which passes all lattices. fascinating spectacle
Long thought to write about this moment or not, but for the sake of objectivity decided to still write. The only point left a bad impression on the whole station. At the end of the conveyor stands aunt, the meaning of the work that I do not fully understand. She rakes debris from the conveyor edge to its midpoint. Probably, this operation is necessary due to some design flaws. Why it can not be automated is not clear, but I think there are reasons for the fact. Or maybe the problem at the other aunties. Not a good picture, but well it conveys the essence:
But the essence is that - do not throw the inorganic waste into the toilet. If you think that you will go down the toilet plastic wrap / pad / package / solid piece of food / ... and that's that - you're wrong. Everything that goes into the sewer does not disappear to nowhere. All of this falls on the conveyor belt and, moreover, all this sees a human being.
A separate item are cotton buds. It turns out they bring a lot of problems. The fact is that being in the flow of sticks are along the course, and easily overcome lattice, t. To. Their cross-section is very small, and make the lattice with very small cells can not. As a result, sticks undergo a stage of mechanical cleaning and litter structures at later stages.
Also, the station staff complained about the irresponsibility of people discharging any waste in the wells. A particularly acute problem Subbotniks when a large number of wells is reset foliage and branches, and simultaneously throughout the city. People think they are doing a good thing, but do not think that all this rubbish then arrives at the station and it will have to extract and export.
Building grids divided into two halves, each serving its NACA unit. The center is equipped descent, apparently to serve grids or some other equipment. The photo is also seen one lattice, lying on the floor.
After building gratings water enters the sand trap, which is not difficult to guess, the sand is removed from it. By the way, "mined" the sand is washed, cleaned and then used for various purposes, including for the construction and for the manufacture of tiles.
Following the sand traps water flows into primary sedimentation tanks in which gravity settle the suspended particles in water. Total NACA on each block of eight primary clarifiers.
After the water settle, it flows into the aeration tanks. And then it begins the essence of biological treatment. In the aeration tanks contains special active yl. Roughly speaking, the activated sludge - a mixture of various bacteria and protozoa, which are processed biowaste. In fact, the same processes occur in nature, in the lakes, where this sludge is at the bottom. However, the difference in scale and speed. In nature, processes occur slowly enough, while their treatment plant must be done as quickly as possible. For this process dispersed using a large number of air supply. Hence the name of the building. In fact it is a large swimming pool, which contains activated sludge, which receives primary treated waste water and, through special pipes, a lot of air. Furthermore a favorable effect on the process is the fact that the waste water is warm throughout the year.
In order to supply air to build a machine room, in which there are a huge power blowers, pump air into the pipes leading to the aeration tank.
blowers consume huge amounts of electricity and continuous operation is extremely important. The fact that without air intake, activated sludge begins to die within hours. During the day he dies completely. If this happens, the restoration of the activated sludge will take many months, during which all waste water will have to be drained directly into the Moscow River, which will lead to environmental disaster of enormous proportions.
On CBS very well remember the accident in 2005, when half of Moscow has been de-energized. Including a few hours of electricity did not arrive and the station. Since then, much work has been done to prevent such accidents in the future, as will be discussed below.
The air intake for aeration is done through four intake impressive size, standing near the main turbine hall.
slightly larger aeration tank, pay attention to the thick blue pipe on the right - it is served on the air:
Now a little about the reconstruction. The first block of NACA was commissioned in the early 70s. In those days, we loved to build precast concrete. Not difficult to guess that the construction started to deteriorate and leak over forty years, especially in such an aggressive environment. Besides facilities just technologically obsolete. Therefore, the project of new buildings and reconstruction began in the last year has been developed.
The new facilities are built of reinforced concrete and are designed for 50 years. In addition there will be several modified purification technology that will purify water even better.
Let us return to the cleaning process. After aeration, the biologically purified water with an admixture of the activated sludge is supplied to secondary settling tanks. The task of these clarifiers - separated activated sludge.
should be separately noted that all the water flows by gravity to the station. To make this possible - each additional building constructed just below the previous one, so that the water flows under its own weight.
To understand how the settler - let's look at the partially dismantled sump reconstructed block. Water comes out of the hole in the center of the sump and into the total. In the settler yl gradually settles to the bottom on which constantly moves ilosgrebatel mounted on the farm, the rotating circle. Scraper yl rakes in a special annular tray, which is visible on the image, and from it in turn, it enters into the circular pit, where pumped through the tube by special pumps. Excess water leaked into the channel laid around the sump and thence to the pipe.
Let us go back again to the reconstruction
One of the problems is the smell of the station. As I wrote above - CBS is actually surrounded by residential areas, and to many residential buildings very close. Under certain weather conditions, the smell from the plant is brought to these houses, and received numerous complaints from residents. To get rid of the smell, it was decided to cover the floors of the buildings in the reconstruction process. The biggest challenge turned out to cover the lagoons. The fact that their diameter is 54 meters (!), With no additional backups can not be set because of the constantly rotating farm. The result was invented by the special design of the floating floors, consisting of two parts. The inner part rotates together with the farm, the outer stationary. In an experiment similar to the overlap was set at one settler Lyubertsy sewage treatment plants and successfully worked for more than three months. Measurements showed that the emissions of odorous gases to the atmosphere reduced to 33 times.
Let's go back to the sludge. During the processing of waste yl actively proliferates. Part of the sludge sent to "relax" and then repeatedly allowed to work in the aeration tanks, the excess is sent to the digestion in Digestion tanks - special floor underground tanks. There yl heated to 53-54 degrees, and starts to produce methane. The obtained methane is used for preheating the sludge and for the mini-TES which is constructed after the aforementioned accident. Mini-TES generate 10 MW of electricity and heat 8 MW, providing up to 50% processes treatment facilities.
The remaining sludge is a waste product in a certain way to prepare ilouplotnitelyah:
IL partially dewatered and send special iloprovodu a distance of about 60 kilometers, the Moscow region to special landfills where it is further dewatered and landfilled or used as a feedstock. Thus, there is no need to take out the waste from the truck plant, which would create a lot of problems. After secondary settling tanks, virtually pure water flows into the outlet channel, going to the Moscow River. Previously clearance on this was completed, however, recently a new block for additional water disinfection was built.
So begins the discharge channel length of 700 meters:
The new block was built directly above the exhaust channel:
the water inside the block is divided into 17 parallel channels, each of which can be opened or closed.
We go inside and get into the HALF-LIFE
A further disinfection is done by hard ultraviolet.
The water fall special blocks comprising a plurality of lamp-tubes that emit UV in the range of 200-300 nm. This rigid ultraviolet most effective impact on microorganisms (DNA leads to destruction, which prevents them from multiplying in the future).
Incidentally, lamps and domestic production control units. It looks very modern, technologically and accurately.
The hall consists of two levels. At the top level should control equipment and the power lamp on the lower level are the cables to the lamps are located hatches for access to running lamps
Also on the lower level are not currently used lamps. Part of the channel is not currently used and lamps are removed. By the way, all made of stainless steel. The fact is that although the water from the treatment comes clean, it is highly saturated with air after aeration, and greatly contributes to corrosion.
When the lamp under the water, there is a green glow. As I understand it the fluorescence of water in the extreme ultraviolet.
I hope the manufacturer (NPO LIT) not to offend anyone, I took a beautiful picture from their website to illustrate:
sight, I must say, enchanting. The photo can not see the movement of water, but it is there. It looks like in science fiction films or games
The output from the block as constipation vane mounted on each channel.
Also in the box there is a special room, where water is pumped through a pipe from the exhaust channel. This tube passes through a plurality of sensors that measure a variety of parameters, and displays them in real time and transmitted to the control room. Thus, constantly monitor the quality of water treatment.
Finally cleaned and disinfected water flows out of the UV disinfection unit.
And the long channel is directed straight into the Moscow River. In the channel of the nutrient medium and warm water is found a huge amount of fish. At the station fishing is prohibited, as a special plaque reads, but outside, near the channel can often be found fishermen.
And finally - ear sticks the toilet is not down!