15 animals, which have played an important role in the history of mankind
The history of mankind is written not only brilliant scientists, politicians and military leaders. "Our younger brothers" sometimes take it for at least an active part, and who knows what would have all ended, do not be, for example, in Alexander's Bucephalus, and Richard Nixon - dog, Checkers.
1. Lin Wang
"Grandpa Lin," as it is called - perhaps the most famous elephant in the history of mankind. During the Sino-Japanese War, which then became part of the Second World Lin Wang a while "fighting" on the side of the Japanese invaders, invaded Burma: elephant carrying cargo and dragged artillery pieces. In 1943 he, along with 12 other elephants had been captured by the Chinese Expeditionary Force, and continued his service there as well as draft power and "cargo" of the animal. There, he was awarded the name of A-Mei (in the lane with the whale -.. "Fine").
After the war, Wang, together with the body arrived in China, where he remained until his death. In 1952, the year "veteran" to retire, and he became one of the main attractions of the Taipei city zoo. Zoo director found it, that the name of A-Mei is too feminine, and renamed it to Lin Wang. Elephant for many years has become a real favorite of residents and their children, and after his death in 2003, the year he was even awarded the title of honorary citizen of the city.
By the way, according to the "Guinness Book of Records" Lin Wang, who died at the age of 86 years, he was the oldest ever living elephants.
Without his trusty steed Bucephalus, Alexander the Great probably would not have received the honorary nickname of "Great": the famous horse played a significant role in his life. Life Bucephalus covered with legends and speculation, but historians agree that this horse really existed.
According to legend, the first meeting of Alexander and "Bychegogolovogo" (lat. Bucephalius) occurred when the future of the famous general was 10 years old. His father, King Philip, offered to buy Bucephalus for 13 talents (about 340 kg of silver - a fabulous sum in those days). But since no one was able to subdue the violent temper of the animal, the king thought to abandon the deal.
In Alexander he intervened and said that if he could not curb the horse, he will pay for it himself. Little Dodger noticed that Bucephalus afraid of its own shadow and bucking, resets all the riders. Jumping into the saddle, Alexander led the horse to turn his head to the sun so that he could not see the shadows - only if the animal finally managed to calm.
There are different assumptions about the death of the legendary horse: some historians write that he died in battle, while others believe that the cause of death was old age. Whatever it was, Alexander was very fond of his horse, and in his honor even Bucephalus founded the city, located in present-day Pakistan - in our time it is called Jalalpur Jattan.
Scientists believe that Surus (surus in the lane with the Phoenician -. "Syrian") - the only bishop who survived the famous march of the Carthaginian commander Hannibal crossing the Alps.
According to some information, "Syrian" was the favorite war elephants military commander, most often went to him, Hannibal. According to eyewitnesses, the famous general, almost all the elephants in his army were of African origin, but many report that at least one was born in India - most likely we are talking about Suruse.
Perhaps this is the Asian elephant roots allowed to go through all the hardships of the Alpine campaign of Hannibal, the most important of which were the hunger, cold, disease and violent battles with the hill tribes.
Outstanding ethologist (animal behaviorists) Dian Fossey throughout his career has worked with a large number of gorillas, but her favorite was always the male by the name of DJ. Between Diane and gorilla emerged a real affection: they spent much time together, and none of the people did not trust the DJ as she.
In 1977, DJ was killed by poachers, and his hands and head, intended for the manufacture of exotic ashtrays killer sold for only $ 20. In memory of the deceased buddy Fossey set up "Fund Didzhita", whose mission is the salvation of the mountain gorillas.
After the death of Didzhita Diane lived only eight years: in 1985, she was hacked unknown attackers near his bungalow near its research center based Karisok. Most likely, the killer hired a commercial organization Exterminating gorillas for profit. Since then, to save the gorilla fund was renamed the "Fund Dian Fossey" - in honor of the woman who devoted her life to the study and conservation of primates, so similar to humans.
Siberian husky Balto at the time was probably the most famous dog in the United States - an outstanding durability and flair made him a true national hero.
In 1925 in the village of Nome, Alaska outbreak of diphtheria. Delivery of drug serum aircraft was not possible due to the storm, and the only vehicles that can overcome the 1085 km under conditions of near-zero visibility and piercing icy wind were driving dog sleds.
At last, the most difficult part of the path length of about 83 km away was carrying vital cargo team led by Balto. Dog almost died while crossing the river, turned the sled, almost lost the box with ampoules, and more than once risked going astray, but thanks to the intuition and perseverance of the Baltic drug was delivered safely.
The epidemic was stopped for five days, and Balto and the other sled dogs became famous overnight. Within a year, both in the Central Park in New York with a monument to the Baltic, on it are engraved the words that could very well be the motto of the animal: "Endurance, dedication, intelligence."
Dog Checkers Richard Nixon obliged to take-off of his political career - perhaps precisely because of it, Nixon became the 37th President of the United States.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
In 1952, when Nixon was running for vice-president, he was accused in the fact that the election campaign was spent illegally donated funds. The seriousness of the charges was nearly forced the then US President Dwight D. Eisenhower to refuse such a partner, but Nixon saved the day, appeared on television to appeal, which went down in history as the "Checkers Speech on".
It Nixon denied all the accusations, saying that the only gift he admits - Puppy cocker spaniel Checkers. I must say, Richard really felt for him affection, and it helped him to create the image of "man of the people" and animal lovers. Public opinion tends to favor Nixon, and he received a long-awaited post that allowed him a few years to continue climbing the political ladder to become president. Unfortunately, Checkers did not wait for the main host of triumph: he had died four years before Nixon's inauguration.
Probably in the world there exists a few animals that have become movie stars, and like the male orca Keiko, and was not at all or not. Keiko has played a major role in the movie "Free Willy" and its sequels. An epic, tells the story of friendship boy and killer whales, so loved by the audience, that those transferred huge sums for the maintenance and treatment of Keiko (during filming, he suffered from a severe skin disease). After the release of pictures on the screens Keiko is called, he became famous: it turned out that his destiny are concerned about the thousands of people who even organized a special fund to raise funds for the needs of hard to be ill, "the artist." In rolling out two more films with his participation, then Keiko put the aquarium in Newport (Oregon). After a couple years of intensive medical procedures orca went home to Iceland, where it was prepared to release to freedom.
Some doubted the wisdom of such a move, believing that the animal is not able to re-adapt to the wild, and, unfortunately, the skeptics were right. In 2002, Keiko was released into the wild, and swim about 1400 km, he settled Taknes fjord on the west coast of Norway, but in 2003, the famous "actor" died of pneumonia.
Elsa became the first in the history of a lioness, who grew up in captivity and was able to successfully adapt to life outside prison. She brought the couple George and Joy Adamson who worked in Kenya Meru National Park.
In 1956, George had to shoot an angry lioness is going to lash out at him, and her three charming cubs were left without a mother. One of the orphaned cubs and was Elsa.
Wife nursed and lioness went, and when she grew up, began to gradually accustomed to freedom, were taken away from the camp and pitting on the injured animals to awaken in her the instinct of the hunter. Elsa gradually accustomed to independence, but from time to time returned to Adamson.
One lioness has withdrawn for a young male, and her "foster parents" relieved and share sadness: they realized that the predator was finally able to establish contact with relatives and now forget the way home, but after a while Elsa came again them with three cubs newborns. Joy Adamson Elsa dedicated the book "Born free", according to which, in 1966, the same name was filmed.
9. The gray-bearded David
David went down in history as the chimpanzee from which the famous British ethologist and primatologist Jane Goodall began her more than 45-year follow-up monkeys in National Park Gombe Stream in Tanzania.
Jane actually lived side by side with the white-bearded, studying its behavior. Thanks to David (and of course, Jane), the world learned that the people - not the only one who can create tools, and seeing him for hunting and fishing, Goodall concluded that chimpanzees eat not only the fruits and leaves, as previously thought.
Perhaps the most important achievement in the gray-bearded what other chimps, looking at communication scientist and his kinsman, no longer shunned Jane and allowed her to establish a close contact. Based on his observations, Goodall created a detailed description of chimpanzee life, and her writings are still unsurpassed classic study of monkeys. We can say that David, who became the first object of the great scientist observations made science more than a few researchers.
10. Lonesome George
is the only known representative of abingdonskih elephant turtles (subspecies of Galapagos tortoises) is often called the world's most famous bachelor. Scientists for years have tried to get from him offspring, even after mating George genetically close mates, the miracle did not happen revival of the form - the embryos in the eggs laid by the females were not viable.
Great, and a half meters in length and weighing about 80 kg male discovered in 1972, on the island Abingdon (also known as Pint) Jozsef Vagvoldi Hungarian scientist. Any such animal to George on the island could not be found, so after his death June 24, 2012, the year abingdonskie turtles are considered to be extinct. The most famous bachelor, according to some estimates, there were about a hundred years.
This sheep was destined to change history: having been born July 5, 1996, the year as a result of the experiment Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell, Dolly became the world's first successfully cloned mammal.
The birth of Dolly put an end to the debate about whether it is possible, in principle, the cloning of complex living beings, and the technology used in its conception, was widely used in cloning mice, dogs, cats and even horses. Thus, Dolly gave a powerful impetus to the development of medicine and biology, identifying their development for many years ahead.
Sheep have lived 6, 5 years, and all this time it attracted the attention of the world community: the headlines of that time her name is found almost more often than the names of the stars of music and cinema. In 2003, Dolly was euthanized, and her stuffed exhibited at the Royal Museum of Scotland. By the way, Dolly became also the first ever cloned mother - she gave birth to six lambs.
12. Punxsutawney Phil
I'm sure many of you have heard about Groundhog Day (February 2): it is believed that the behavior of marmots in the day, you can predict the proximity of the onset of spring. When marmots safely leave their burrows, it is said that the winter on its last legs, and if the animals, fearfully looking around, hiding back - sooner than six weeks, the heat not wait.
The most famous groundhog predictor of all time - Phil, who lives in Punxsutawney (Pennsylvania). Residents claim that only Phil could predict the weather, and all the other groundhogs are wrong. According to legend, marmots give special elixir of longevity, so in 2013, the year he turned 172 years (despite the fact that the usual life expectancy of marmots - up to ten years). Of course, the "longevity" Phil - nothing more than a tourist attraction, but faithful to its tradition of Punxsutawney residents is respected. However, once "longevity" almost sentenced to death: Lawyer Ohio groundhog accused that he "promised" the Americans early spring, but after the release of the Phil hole temperature dropped to -30 ° C. US climate scientists have calculated that the famous groundhog predictions are correct at 39%, but many Phil fans call other numbers - from 75% to 90%.
From the little polar bear cub, which was born at the Berlin Zoo mother of 5 December 2006, the year declined immediately after birth, but this was a family tragedy for the zoo a real gift. The news of the "abandoned baby Knut" quickly spread throughout Germany, and in Berlin the crowd pulled compassionate Germans, eager to witness the "orphan" and take part in his fate. In honor of the bear was even called the children: more than half of boys born in March of 2007 in Berlin, were named Knut.
zoo staff raised Knut, and for several years it has become for them a "gold mine": the famous polar bear wrote books, made films, but in Berlin are still sold toys and souvenirs, depicting a bear, even though he died in 2011, year. After the death of Knut at the zoo with a monument, which immediately became a place of pilgrimage for many fans of the animal.
The names of Belka and Strelka are known literally all over the world. Returning from orbit, they are forever in the history of space exploration, but do not forget, that their flight was preceded by several other start-ups that were not so successful, but have allowed scientists to carry out "work on the bugs" and thus ensured the success of the famous couple of the expedition. Flight Huskies held on 3 November 1957, almost three years before the start of Belka and Strelka. experimental program did not provide for the return Laika to Earth, so scientists know that the dog is doomed, and apart from the thirst of space exploration, they tested at a dog preparing to be sent into space, researchers probably felt something akin to compassion.
The design of the module was designed for a week's stay Huskies in orbit, but as a result of miscalculations admitted she died, having made four turns around the Earth. The Soviet Union has long gloss over the details of the incident, and even scientists around the world reported on the observation of physiological indicators of a dog, Laika although by that time was already dead.
Bubbles (Bubbles, in the lane with English -.. "Bubbles") - is a chimpanzee, was born in a medical laboratory, and for a time served as the scientists in experimental animals, but thanks to a fluke of him learned Michael Jackson, who has redeemed animal, and for several years they are almost never parted.
The primacy knows firsthand about the life with the King of Pop: he took an active part in Jackson's concerts, accompanied him to a party where he met with the bohemians of the 1980s, and was, according to Michael, one of his few real friends. The singer even intended to transplant chimpanzee human ligament, so he could speak, but he was dissuaded from undertaking scientists believe that Bubbles will not survive the operation. This unusual friendship immortalized in 1988, sculptor Jeff Koons (Jeff Koons), who created plated statue which shows a pop-King and monkey in full size.
When Bubbles grew up and became too aggressive, Michael sent him to the center for great apes in Florida, but regularly called primate, so that he could hear his voice. After Jackson's death his chimpanzee for a time became the focus of public attention, but gradually interest in it died down. Now Bubbles are still living in Florida, according to the Center's staff, really misses his "stellar" to a friend.