What is called the territory of Russia Siberia actually
Everyone knows - there is Siberia, and its wealth grows Russian power in Russia. The area of this vast region is more than 70% of the total area of the country, Siberia is home to 36 million people, however, specify the boundaries of this region are not all.
In a broad geographical sense, Siberia understand the huge space, which is located in the northern part of the Asian continent. Until the XX century, geographers believed that Siberia stretches from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and the border with China to the Arctic Ocean. But, since the XX century, an increasing part of Siberia are starting to call the Far East, and in the XXI century to the Far East are already applies to Trans-Baikal and Buryatia - regions that are very far from the Pacific coast. So where is the border of Siberia?
Volga - is Siberia?
In ancient times, Siberia believed all that was found to the east of the Volga, for example, on a map of the XV century, which belonged to Cardinal Stephen Borgia, this region is located directly on the east bank of the great Russian river and it was called - Siberian Tatars. On the map the same time, a monk from Venice, Fra Mauro, wonderful taiga edge located on the banks of the Kama and Vyatka rivers. Russian "drawing" the XV century shows that the local population has a more accurate picture of Siberia - they Siberia was roughly on the territory of the Tatar Khanate, but included larger areas - the earth current Kurgan, Chelyabinsk, Omsk and Tyumen regions. The first is the most accurate "Drawing of the Siberian Land" was made at the end of the XVII century Tobolsk voivode Peter Godunov. However, according to this figure, many modern travelers might get confused - South on the map was at the top, the North - at the bottom and the distance from one to the other geographic objects measured in days of riding on a horse. On this map are plotted in detail the places already well known Cossacks - for example, the Ob river valley. But a huge deepest Lena flows into the ocean in the east. Five years later, "Drawing" has been clarified - it caused the road to "the kingdom of China."
However, the boundaries of Siberia in the minds of Russian people still start right behind the Volga. On the map, which the compiler in 1697 became Semyon Remizov, this region started on the eastern shore of the ancient Itil, and its border in the truest sense extended to the ocean - ended Siberia Kamchatka. In the north, the border runs along the edge of Mangazeysky and Arctic seas, and in the south - on the northern shore of the Aral Sea, according to some "nomadic Kalmyks" and then - on the border with the Qin empire.
The western boundary of
Over time, the Siberian border relegated farther from the Volga. At the end of the XVIII century, according to the reform of Catherine the Great Siberian province was divided in Perm and Tobolsk governorship - this in the "Threshold of Siberia: the images in the description of the boundaries of travel," says an expert on historical geography, Theodore S. Korando. According to the decree of Empress between the governorship were put first boundary marks indicating the start of Siberia. Most likely, it was just wooden poles. During the reign of Emperor Paul poles were still set, and Lieutenant Commander Fleet Zhemchuzhnikov in 1797 placed them near Tyumen between the village and Tseposhnikovo Iryumskoy cottage.
In the literature, the pillars for the first time describes the German novelist August von Kotzebue, who was exiled to the city of Kurgan province of Tobolsk. He wrote that the border of Siberia is 40 miles to Tyumen, it is labeled columns. It is interesting that the current pointer is at about the same place. American journalist David Filippov from the Washington post has studied this issue and found the Siberian border about 200 kilometers east of Yekaterinburg - a nondescript stone near the road.
But if you draw the line between the Urals and Siberia, from a geological point of view, it turns out that it passes right through Chelyabinsk. One half of the city is literally on the granites of the Ural Mountains, and the other - is situated on sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian platform. Chelyabinsk residents believe that the border runs along the Siberian river Miass. But geographical borders of Siberia lies on the border of Kurgan region.
The southern boundary of the
The southern border is also changed over time. In the time of the conquest of Siberia, the Cossacks involved in her vast areas in the north of the Kazakh Khanate. In the XIX century it huge areas of Turkestan province included. But after the revolution, they were excluded from Siberia, and in 1936, the southern border of Siberia crossed the border with the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, and is being held at the border with Kazakhstan. In Soviet times, was expelled from Siberia Khakassia, Tuva and Altai Republic. However, a decade after the fall of the Soviet Empire Republic were again included in the Siberian Federal District.
The eastern boundary of
On the eastern border of Siberia, the situation was somewhat more complicated - from the XVII century and until the beginning of the XIX century it passed along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. However, ever since, as Russia annexed the Ussuri region and Amurskaya Oblast, in the minds of people emerged of the Far East. In the XIX century the governor of Siberia Siberia Mikhail Speransky divided into two parts - West and East. In Eastern Siberia were Prienisene, Baikal, Baikal, Buryatia, Chukotka and Kamchatka Peninsula and Yakutia, - wrote about it ethnographer Nikolai Yadrintsev. In Soviet times, was expelled from Siberia Yakutia, Chukotka Autonomous District and the Chita Region.
Now the border of Siberia are often associated with the boundaries of the Siberian Federal District, but it is fundamentally wrong - then it turns out that the Tyumen region - Ural it, but historically it is not. And in the east to Siberia to November 3, 2018 do not include Buryatia and Trans-Baikal region, although for several centuries it was the Siberian land. In general, the geography has not yet determined the exact borders of Siberia, and in the schools teach in different ways: some teachers come from the contemporary administrative division of Russia, while others teach students that Siberia - it's not just the geography but also history, and its borders You can not restrict the SFO.